Ferramentas do usuário

Ferramentas do site


immersive_360x180_panoramic_photography_in_bsd

Diferenças

Aqui você vê as diferenças entre duas revisões dessa página.

Link para esta página de comparações

Ambos lados da revisão anterior Revisão anterior
Próxima revisão
Revisão anterior
immersive_360x180_panoramic_photography_in_bsd [2013/01/01 10:36]
cartola /* Image Treatment */
immersive_360x180_panoramic_photography_in_bsd [2019/04/05 20:38] (atual)
Linha 1: Linha 1:
-{{#security:*|Cartola,Patrycja}}+This article has been published in the [[http://bsdmag.org/download/2013/|BSD Magazine, January 2013 edition]]. Here is {{arquivo:bsd_01_2013.pdf|the link to a local copy I keep}}. You better read the PDF, that has been reviewed by the editors and I didn't update the article here yet. If and when I do this I remove this message and at that time probably the text will be more complete than the PDF as I won't resist to extend it a little more.
  
 +If you need to contact me for any reason, my email adress is {{arquivo:meuend.png?130x0}}
  
-In this article I am going to show you what is a 360x180° panoramic photography and its possibilities. I hope I can show you how fascinating it can beIt is, nowadays, one of the most complete ways of knowing some place without being there. That is one of the reasons why it is also called "Immersive Photography". In the following sections I hope I can get your attention to the subject and maybe teach you how to make it under a BSD or any Unix like system, using only free open source software.+|  | 
 + 
 +In this article I am going to show you what 360x180° panoramic photography is along with a few of its possible applications. I hope I can show you how fascinating it isPanoramic photography is one of the most complete ways of experiencing a location without physically visiting. That is one of the reasons why it is also called Immersive Photography. In the following sections I hope I can inspire you to try it out with tools available under a BSD or any Unix like system, using only free open source software.
  
  
Linha 8: Linha 11:
  
  
-After reading this text you will know: +  *  what 360x180° panoramic photography is
- +  *  how to start making your own panoramic photographs,  
-  *  what is and how to explore a 360x180° panoramic photography, +  *  the main tips and tricks to transition completely to 360x180°. 
-  *  how to start making your own panoramic photography+
-  *  the main tips and tricks to evolute to a complete 360x180°.+
  
  
Linha 18: Linha 19:
  
  
-To follow the first step of this article as a simple 360x180° panoramic photography spectator you should basically know how to use a computer, and access the Internet using a browser with a flash plugin or an apple device. +  *  know how to use GIMP((GIMP: Image Editor - //http://www.gimp.org/''//)) or an image editor to correct small imperfections in an image,
- +
-To learn how to make a basic panoramic photography you should: +
- +
-  *  know how to take pictures with any camera, +
-  *  be an advanced user. +
- +
-To learn how to make and publish a complete 360x180° panoramic photography you should also: +
- +
-  *  know how to use GIMP((GIMP: Image Editor - //<nowiki>http://www.gimp.org/</nowiki>//)) or an image editor to correct small imperfections in an image,+
   *  preferentially know how to use a command line,   *  preferentially know how to use a command line,
   *  preferentially have the recommended equipment.   *  preferentially have the recommended equipment.
Linha 35: Linha 27:
  
  
-Electronic engineer, graduated in 1995 in UFRJ((UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - //<nowiki>http://www.ufrj.br/</nowiki>//)). Have worked for around 15 years with Unix, mainly with FreeBSD but also Solaris, Tru64, Linux and others. Experienced in free and open source software, IT infra-structure, network management, system development and project management. Organized the BSDCon Brazil in 2003, created the "BSD em Revista", the first magazine dedicated to BSD in Portuguese and the news site //<nowiki>http://www.myfreebsd.com.br</nowiki>// (not online anymore). Organized and taught in FreeBSD courses. Studied photography at school in 1985. Built amplifiers, tripods, home made cameras and so on. Make panoramic pictures since 2002 and got specialized in 2010. Keep a blog of immersive pictures((My 360 pictures blog - //<nowiki>http://cartola.org/360</nowiki>//)) and the first open forum in Portuguese, the Panoforum((Panoforum - the first open forum in portuguese dedicated to panoramic photography - //<nowiki>http://www.panoforum.com.br/</nowiki>//)).+Electronic engineer, graduated in 1995 in UFRJ((UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - //http://www.ufrj.br/''//)). Have worked for around 15 years with Unix, mainly with FreeBSD but also Solaris, Tru64, Linux and others. Experienced in free and open source software, IT infra-structure, network management, system development and project management. Organized the BSDCon Brazil in 2003, created the "BSD em Revista", the first magazine dedicated to BSD in Portuguese and the news site //http://www.myfreebsd.com.br'' (not online anymore). Organized and taught in FreeBSD courses. Studied photography at school in 1985. Built amplifiers, tripods, home made cameras and so on. Make panoramic pictures since 2002 and got specialized in 2010. Keep a blog of immersive pictures((My 360 pictures blog - //http://cartola.org/360''//)) and the first open forum in Portuguese, the Panoforum((Panoforum - the first open forum in portuguese dedicated to panoramic photography - //http://www.panoforum.com.br/''//)).//
  
  
Linha 45: Linha 37:
 {{ arquivo:telhado_dia-lp-3000x1500.jpg?800x0 }} {{ arquivo:telhado_dia-lp-3000x1500.jpg?800x0 }}
  
-Well, anyone can guess what is a panoramic image. One possible definition is that it is a picture that extends the lens or the human eye field of view. The most accepted is that it is a question of the field of view degrees, but sometimes it is hard to discover the angle used in a ready made picture, so we finish with the image aspect. Probably it is ok to call any picture with an aspect of 2:1, or wider, a panoramic photo. Most of the times it is achieved by joining pictures together to make a new one with a wider coverage angle. The "immersive" or "360x180°" or "full sphere" or "spherical panorama" is the panoramic picture that extends this to the wider possible angle, covering all visible areas.+Well, anyone can guess what is a panoramic image. One possible definition is that it is a picture that extends the lens or the human eye field of view. The most accepted is that it is a question of the field of view degrees, but sometimes it is hard to discover the angle used in a ready made picture, so we finish with the image aspect. Probably it is ok to call any picture with an aspect of 2:1, or wider, a panoramic photo. Most of the times it is achieved by joining pictures together to make a new one with a wider coverage angle. The "immersive" or "360x180°" or "full sphere" or "spherical panorama" is the panoramic picture that extends this to the wider possible angle, covering all visible areas, as shown in Figure 2.
  
 {{ arquivo:360x180.png }} {{ arquivo:360x180.png }}
Linha 53: Linha 45:
 After this little introduction it is a good idea to have an immersive experience. Follows some links where you can see some of these pictures, and these is only a very small list of them: After this little introduction it is a good idea to have an immersive experience. Follows some links where you can see some of these pictures, and these is only a very small list of them:
  
-  *  //<nowiki>http://www.cartola.org/360/</nowiki>// - my blog, where I post the images I make and some how-to's. As my native language is Portuguese, there will probably have always more posts in this language than in English. Sorry for that, +  *  //http://www.cartola.org/360/'' - my blog, where I post the images I make and some how-to's. As my native language is Portuguese, there will probably have always more posts in this language than in English. Sorry for that,// 
-  *  //<nowiki>http://www.360cities.net/</nowiki>// - 360x180° pictures community with pictures from all over the world, +  *  //http://www.360cities.net/'' - 360x180° pictures community with pictures from all over the world,// 
-  *  //<nowiki>http://www.airpano.net/</nowiki>// - spectacular gallery from a non commercial group of Russian photographers.+  *  //http://www.airpano.net/'' - spectacular gallery from a non commercial group of Russian photographers.//
  
 Try to experiment everything, clicking and dragging to every side, up and down too, making zoom in and out and so on. Most of the people get really impressed and a good amount gets astonished with this kind of photography, mainly when it is made with high quality. Google street view doesn't care about perfect quality and even this way their images cause a good impression. The possibility to have a point of view as if we were in the place and be able to chose what to look at is really amazing, isn't it? Try to experiment everything, clicking and dragging to every side, up and down too, making zoom in and out and so on. Most of the people get really impressed and a good amount gets astonished with this kind of photography, mainly when it is made with high quality. Google street view doesn't care about perfect quality and even this way their images cause a good impression. The possibility to have a point of view as if we were in the place and be able to chose what to look at is really amazing, isn't it?
  
-Google Street View is available from the Google Maps((Google Maps, where you can find Google Street View - //<nowiki>http://maps.google.com/</nowiki>//)) system but they have not shot everywhere yet. Small cities and countries might not have it. With it you can discover the place without going there physically. Try to see some streets in New York, Rio de Janeiro, London or Tokio. It is totally amazing. Probably every BSD user already know how to use it, but anyway, you need to put the map over where you want, click and drag the orange little guy figure over the zoom rule on the left side and release the mouse button when the guy is over some street. The streets with street view available will turn to blue when you start dragging the orange guy. You will need flash plugin to see this.+Google Street View is available from the Google Maps((Google Maps, where you can find Google Street View - //http://maps.google.com/''//)) system but they have not shot everywhere yet. Small cities and countries might not have it. With it you can discover the place without going there physically. Try to see some streets in New York, Rio de Janeiro, London or Tokio. It is totally amazing. Probably every BSD user already know how to use it, but anyway, you need to put the map over where you want, click and drag the orange little guy figure over the zoom rule on the left side and release the mouse button when the guy is over some street. The streets with street view available will turn to blue when you start dragging the orange guy. You will need flash plugin to see this.
  
 {{ arquivo:street_view.png?800x0 }} {{ arquivo:street_view.png?800x0 }}
  
-By now you can probably guess all the possibilities of this images: hotel sites, tourism, realstate, restaurants, parks, … Any enterprise or individual that want to show any place can take advantage of this. Even those crazy guys that only what to keep a family memory. Do you think it can be made totally with free software? Surely! +By now you can probably imagine all the possibilities of this images: hotel sites, tourism, realstate, restaurants, parks, … Any enterprise or individual that want to show any place can take advantage of this. Even those crazy guys that only what to keep a family memory. Do you think it can be made totally with free software? Surely! 
-The free softwares available to make panoramic images already exist at many years. Hugin, the main free software I use to stitch my photos, has its first files at sourceforce dated from 2003. And he is only a GUI to other tools, like PanoTools, that already exist before that. The German physician and mathematician Dr. Helmut Dersch has began to make PanoTools in 1998. In 2004 I have made the first Hugin and its dependencies ports to FreeBSD. In 2000 I have participated in a project to build an Internet Brazilian tourism portal that used 360º images to present hotels. It was a big news at that time, but the picture qualities were much poorer than today and also the computer and Internet capacities were inferior, so it was difficult to make higher resolution images. Nowadays it is possible to make images with very high resolution and commercial quality using only free software.+The free softwares available to make panoramic images have existed for some time. Hugin, the main free software I use to stitch my photos, has its first files at sourceforce dated from 2003. And he is only a GUI to other tools, like PanoTools, that already exist before that. The German physician and mathematician Dr. Helmut Dersch has began to make PanoTools in 1998. In 2004 I have made the first Hugin and its dependencies ports to FreeBSD. In 2000 I have participated in a project to build an Internet Brazilian tourism portal that used 360º images to present hotels. It was a big news at that time, but the picture qualities were much poorer than today and also the computer and Internet capacities were inferior, so it was difficult to make higher resolution images. Nowadays it is possible to make images with very high resolution and commercial quality using only free software.
 So let’s start talking about the process and free software tools that can be used to make such images. I have already made some speeches and workshops and I usually like to split the process into steps, like this: So let’s start talking about the process and free software tools that can be used to make such images. I have already made some speeches and workshops and I usually like to split the process into steps, like this:
  
Linha 80: Linha 72:
 For a beginner it is surely easier to start mounting a partial panorama. For that you just need some images taken with some overlap between them, like 30 to 50% for example. There is no need of specific cares about the way you shoot and probably also won't have no need of post editing. For a beginner it is surely easier to start mounting a partial panorama. For that you just need some images taken with some overlap between them, like 30 to 50% for example. There is no need of specific cares about the way you shoot and probably also won't have no need of post editing.
  
-Hugin site has a very good English tutorial on it((Hugin tutorial on stitching two pictures together - //<nowiki>http://hugin.sourceforge.net/tutorials/two-photos/en.shtml</nowiki>//)). By doing this step one can have a first contact with the tool and start recognizing it's menus and tabs. The good aspect of the tutorial is that it teaches you how to do the steps manually. It is not so important when stitching just two pictures, but can be necessary to join a full sphere panorama, so it is a good way to start learning to do a full sphere.+Hugin site has a very good English tutorial on it((Hugin tutorial on stitching two pictures together - //http://hugin.sourceforge.net/tutorials/two-photos/en.shtml''//)). By doing this step one can have a first contact with the tool and start recognizing it's menus and tabs. The good aspect of the tutorial is that it teaches you how to do the steps manually. It is not so important when stitching just two pictures, but can be necessary to join a full sphere panorama, so it is a good way to start learning to do a full sphere.
  
  
Linha 92: Linha 84:
 For the beginners I strongly recommend making the previous step, mounting a simple panorama to get used with Hugin. Patience will certainly be of great value in your learning journey, cause mounting a complete sphere panorama can take some time. If you are going to try to shoot without a tripod, some important tips are: For the beginners I strongly recommend making the previous step, mounting a simple panorama to get used with Hugin. Patience will certainly be of great value in your learning journey, cause mounting a complete sphere panorama can take some time. If you are going to try to shoot without a tripod, some important tips are:
  
-  *  turn using the machine as the rotation axis and not you,+  *  turn using the machine as the rotation axis and not you, as shown in Figure 5,
  
 {{ arquivo:giro_sem_tripe.png }} {{ arquivo:giro_sem_tripe.png }}
Linha 101: Linha 93:
 Those tips will make your first try much easier. Using a tripod would make it easy? Yes, but the best would be using a tripod with an appropriated head for panoramic shooting. Rotate the camera around the **No Parallax Point** makes a **huge difference** in the stitching step and it can be made using this tripod head I mentioned. Those tips will make your first try much easier. Using a tripod would make it easy? Yes, but the best would be using a tripod with an appropriated head for panoramic shooting. Rotate the camera around the **No Parallax Point** makes a **huge difference** in the stitching step and it can be made using this tripod head I mentioned.
  
-There are many models of panoramic tripod heads and you can even make your own one at home. There is a page in the Panotools Wiki((Panoramic Tripod Heads - //<nowiki>http://wiki.panotools.org/Heads</nowiki>//)) that shows many commercial models of them and also many home made ones in the section called "Self Made".+There are many models of panoramic tripod heads and you can even make your own one at home. There is a page in the Panotools Wiki((Panoramic Tripod Heads - //http://wiki.panotools.org/Heads''//)) that shows many commercial models of them and also many home made ones in the section called "Self Made".
  
 But who in hell is this guy called **No Parallax Point**? Even if you can't buy or make your own panoramic head, it can help a lot if you know where he is. This will decrease the perspective errors, usually called parallax errors, making it easy to stitch and decreasing the need for post editing. But who in hell is this guy called **No Parallax Point**? Even if you can't buy or make your own panoramic head, it can help a lot if you know where he is. This will decrease the perspective errors, usually called parallax errors, making it easy to stitch and decreasing the need for post editing.
Linha 111: Linha 103:
 In a few words it is the point that, if used as the axis for rotating the camera, won't cause any perspective errors between the objects in the scene. Usually it is located in front of the camera, many times in the middle of the lens. In Figures 9 and 10 we can see some examples of panoramic tripod head being used to turn the camera using the no parallax point (**NPP**). In a few words it is the point that, if used as the axis for rotating the camera, won't cause any perspective errors between the objects in the scene. Usually it is located in front of the camera, many times in the middle of the lens. In Figures 9 and 10 we can see some examples of panoramic tripod head being used to turn the camera using the no parallax point (**NPP**).
  
-The //No Parallax Point// is sometimes confused((Photography misconceptions: nodal point - //<nowiki>http://toothwalker.org/optics/misconceptions.html#m6</nowiki>//)) with the Nodal Point((Nodal Point - //<nowiki>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nodal_point#Nodal_points</nowiki>//)), which is an optical concept and not necessarily is the same point where one would be able to shoot pictures with no parallax errors((Paper about the pivot point - //<nowiki>http://web.archive.org/web/20060513074042/http://doug.kerr.home.att.net/pumpkin/Pivot_Point.pdf</nowiki>//)). Well, what I want to tell you here is that there is one special point where you can put the rotation axis of the camera and this way you will be able to take pictures rotating the cameras and have no parallax problems. And what is a **parallax problem**?+The //No Parallax Point// is sometimes confused((Photography misconceptions: nodal point - //http://toothwalker.org/optics/misconceptions.html#m6''//)) with the Nodal Point((Nodal Point - //http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nodal_point#Nodal_points''//)), which is an optical concept and not necessarily is the same point where one would be able to shoot pictures with no parallax errors((Paper about the pivot point - //http://web.archive.org/web/20060513074042/http://doug.kerr.home.att.net/pumpkin/Pivot_Point.pdf''//)). Well, what I want to tell you here is that there is one special point where you can put the rotation axis of the camera and this way you will be able to take pictures rotating the cameras and have no parallax problems. And what is a **parallax problem**?
  
 | {{ arquivo:parallax1.jpg?400x0 }}| {{ arquivo:parallax2.jpg?400x0 }} | | {{ arquivo:parallax1.jpg?400x0 }}| {{ arquivo:parallax2.jpg?400x0 }} |
Linha 122: Linha 114:
 {{ arquivo:parallax1-parallax2-pq.jpg?800x0 }} {{ arquivo:parallax1-parallax2-pq.jpg?800x0 }}
  
-And how do we use the **NPP**? In Figures 9 and 10 we can see two different cameras using a professional tripod head that allows allows horizontal and vertical rotation using the NPP allowing a full sphere shooting. The rotation axis is marked by the green line. The PanoTools Wiki((Panorama Tools Wiki - //<nowiki>http://wiki.panotools.org/</nowiki>//)), which is a great panoramic reference, has an article about tripod heads((Tripod Heads - //<nowiki>http://wiki.panotools.org/Heads</nowiki>//)).+And how do we use the **NPP**? In Figures 9 and 10 we can see two different cameras using a professional tripod head that allows allows horizontal and vertical rotation using the NPP allowing a full sphere shooting. The rotation axis is marked by the green line. The PanoTools Wiki((Panorama Tools Wiki - //http://wiki.panotools.org/''//)), which is a great panoramic reference, has an article about tripod heads((Tripod Heads - //http://wiki.panotools.org/Heads''//)).
  
 | {{ arquivo:canon_na_nn.png?400x0 }}| {{ arquivo:pns_na_nn.png?400x0 }} | | {{ arquivo:canon_na_nn.png?400x0 }}| {{ arquivo:pns_na_nn.png?400x0 }} |
  
  
-Besides a lot of commercial models we can also see some “Self Made” heads, where two of mine are also listed. I am also making a tutorial for a simple self made head very efficient((A simplified self made tripod head model - //<nowiki>http://wp.me/P1AGa0-gS</nowiki>//)). By the time of this writing it was only in Portuguese, but the many images there can give you a good idea of the suggested ideas of simplification.+Besides a lot of commercial models we can also see some “Self Made” heads, where two of mine are also listed. I am also making a tutorial for a simple self made head very efficient((A simplified self made tripod head model - //http://wp.me/P1AGa0-gS''//)). By the time of this writing it was only in Portuguese, but the many images there can give you a good idea of the suggested ideas of simplification.
  
 It is important to find the **NPP** of your camera+lens and for this it is necessary to follow some steps. One very interesting method is the tape on the window. In figures 11 and 12 we can se two images showing a tape fixed in the glass of a window. It is important to find the **NPP** of your camera+lens and for this it is necessary to follow some steps. One very interesting method is the tape on the window. In figures 11 and 12 we can se two images showing a tape fixed in the glass of a window.
Linha 138: Linha 130:
 {{ arquivo:01-fita-02-fita-pq.jpg?700x0 }} {{ arquivo:01-fita-02-fita-pq.jpg?700x0 }}
  
-There are some very good references about setting the NPP, like the John Panos site((How to find the No Parallax Point - //<nowiki>http://www.johnhpanos.com/epcalib.htm</nowiki>//)). It can take some time to set it up, but it is something that you can do only once. There is also a database of already known camera+lens at the PanoTools wiki((NPP/Entrance Pupil Database - //<nowiki>http://wiki.panotools.org/Entrance_Pupil_Database</nowiki>//)). For updated references besides other not shown here refer to my blog reference page((Reference page at Cartola's blog - //<nowiki>http://cartola.org/360/en/reference-links/</nowiki>//)).+There are some very good references about setting the NPP, like the John Panos site((How to find the No Parallax Point - //http://www.johnhpanos.com/epcalib.htm''//)). It can take some time to set it up, but it is something that you can do only once. There is also a database of already known camera+lens at the PanoTools wiki((NPP/Entrance Pupil Database - //http://wiki.panotools.org/Entrance_Pupil_Database''//)). For updated references besides other not shown here refer to my blog reference page((Reference page at Cartola's blog - //http://cartola.org/360/en/reference-links/''//)).
  
  
Linha 146: Linha 138:
 Yet in the photography phase I would include the image treatment. Almost all picture can be improved in an image editor and the full sphere panoramic images usually can take advantages of some techniques like HDR, noise reduction, color correction, exposure fusion, focus stack and others. Here are some free software tools I would recommend, not all of them directly available for BSDs. Specifically the “Neatimage” has a linux version that runs easily with linux emulation under my FreeBSD. Yet in the photography phase I would include the image treatment. Almost all picture can be improved in an image editor and the full sphere panoramic images usually can take advantages of some techniques like HDR, noise reduction, color correction, exposure fusion, focus stack and others. Here are some free software tools I would recommend, not all of them directly available for BSDs. Specifically the “Neatimage” has a linux version that runs easily with linux emulation under my FreeBSD.
  
-  *  UFRaw((UFRaw: Raw treatment software - //<nowiki>http://ufraw.sourceforge.net/</nowiki>//)), RawTherapee((Raw Therapee: Raw treatment software - //<nowiki>http://www.rawtherapee.com/</nowiki>//)) or Darktable((Darktable: Raw treatment software and photography workflow application - //<nowiki>http://www.darktable.org/</nowiki>//)) +  *  UFRaw((UFRaw: Raw treatment software - //http://ufraw.sourceforge.net/''//)), RawTherapee((Raw Therapee: Raw treatment software - //http://www.rawtherapee.com/''//)) or Darktable((Darktable: Raw treatment software and photography workflow application - //http://www.darktable.org/''//)) 
- If you don't know what a raw image format is you can just ignore it and work with the JPG, jumping this topic. These are free softwares that  will make the initial RAW treatment in case you have shoot in RAW format. This image format is available in many cameras and is capable of storing much more information than the traditional JPG format, allowing more flexibility in the image treatment process. These three are available for installing from the FreeBSD port system. In NetBSD packages you will find the UFRaw as a GIMP plugin or you can try the FreeBSD ports on it. Some other softwares are able to deal with raw format, like Shotwell((Picture organizer - //<nowiki>http://yorba.org/shotwell/</nowiki>//)). I just didn't list it above because it has limited edition capabilities, beeing more a picture organizer.+ If you don't know what a raw image format is you can just ignore it and work with the JPG, jumping this topic. These are free softwares that  will make the initial RAW treatment in case you have shoot in RAW format. This image format is available in many cameras and is capable of storing much more information than the traditional JPG format, allowing more flexibility in the image treatment process. These three are available for installing from the FreeBSD port system. In NetBSD packages you will find the UFRaw as a GIMP plugin or you can try the FreeBSD ports on it. Some other softwares are able to deal with raw format, like Shotwell((Picture organizer - //http://yorba.org/shotwell/''//)). I just didn't list it above because it has limited edition capabilities, beeing more a picture organizer.
   *  GIMP(())   *  GIMP(())
  Probably a well known tool for many of the BSD world. The GIMP is, in a few words, the free software alternative for Photoshop. It is an image editor. With it we can make most of the image improvements like color, luminosity, focus and many more. As an old and mature tool it is available for all most famous BSD flavors, including DragonFly BSD.  Probably a well known tool for many of the BSD world. The GIMP is, in a few words, the free software alternative for Photoshop. It is an image editor. With it we can make most of the image improvements like color, luminosity, focus and many more. As an old and mature tool it is available for all most famous BSD flavors, including DragonFly BSD.
-  *  Neatimage((Neatimage: noise reduction tool - //<nowiki>http://www.neatimage.com/</nowiki>//))+  *  Neatimage((Neatimage: noise reduction tool - //http://www.neatimage.com/''//))
  This is a very good noise reduction tool. It is not opensource, but has a free version that deals with JPG images and is available for Linux, Mac and even Windows! As I have said, I run the Linux version with no problems in my FreeBSD desktop. In Figure 14 a closeup in a section of an example image with much noise. It used ISO 6400 and with higher ISO values the noise gets stronger. In Figure 15 the same section treated with Neat Image.  This is a very good noise reduction tool. It is not opensource, but has a free version that deals with JPG images and is available for Linux, Mac and even Windows! As I have said, I run the Linux version with no problems in my FreeBSD desktop. In Figure 14 a closeup in a section of an example image with much noise. It used ISO 6400 and with higher ISO values the noise gets stronger. In Figure 15 the same section treated with Neat Image.
  
Linha 156: Linha 148:
  
  
-  *  ImageMagick((ImageMagick - Convert, Edit, and Compose Images. A very powerful and mature command line tool set to manipulate images - //<nowiki>http://www.imagemagick.org/</nowiki>//)) +  *  ImageMagick((ImageMagick - Convert, Edit, and Compose Images. A very powerful and mature command line tool set to manipulate images - //http://www.imagemagick.org/''//)) 
-What to say about ImageMagick? It can make almost everything with images in the command line. It is a very mature and powerful set of image tools to do many many things related to pictures. Here I mention it as an alternative tool to use as noise reduction filter. It can take a little more time to calibrate the parameters to use, but, as in panoramas we use many similar images, it can save you much more time using it in a script to process all the panorama images in the same way, as it needs to be done. I have tested the commands suggested in the ISONOISE script done by Fred((Fred's ImageMagick Scripts: ISONOISE - //<nowiki>http://www.fmwconcepts.com/imagemagick/isonoise/index.php</nowiki>//)). The suggested command sequence is:+What to say about ImageMagick? It can make almost everything with images in the command line. It is a very mature and powerful set of image tools to do many many things related to pictures. Here I mention it as an alternative tool to use as noise reduction filter. It can take a little more time to calibrate the parameters to use, but, as in panoramas we use many similar images, it can save you much more time using it in a script to process all the panorama images in the same way, as it needs to be done. I have tested the commands suggested in the ISONOISE script done by Fred((Fred's ImageMagick Scripts: ISONOISE - //http://www.fmwconcepts.com/imagemagick/isonoise/index.php''//)). The suggested command sequence is:
 convert $infile -median $radius $tmp0 convert $infile -median $radius $tmp0
 convert $infile $tmp0 -compose Difference -composite -threshold $thresh% $tmp1 convert $infile $tmp0 -compose Difference -composite -threshold $thresh% $tmp1
Linha 163: Linha 155:
 You must change $tmp0 and $tmp1 to temporary file names, $infile and $outfile for the the input and output files and $radius and $thresh% with the radius and threshold values. Those last two are the ones you change until achieve the result desired. Notice that the parameters used as variables are ready to be used in a shell script or you can also download the ready made script from Fred's mentioned site, of course. Notice, however, that they are bash scripts prepared to use bash installed at /bin/bash and bash is not installed by default on BSD systems. I got the result shown in Figure 16 with a radius of 30 and a threshold of 0% using the commands directly, not the script (it made difference as the script doesn't do exactly those commands). Watching the pictures in a larger size in my computer I consider the resulting image using ImageMagick better than the one using Neat Image, but it can vary from image to image. Other tries can be made with the approaches done by Fred in his scripts called noisecleaner, denoise, statsfilt or others.  You must change $tmp0 and $tmp1 to temporary file names, $infile and $outfile for the the input and output files and $radius and $thresh% with the radius and threshold values. Those last two are the ones you change until achieve the result desired. Notice that the parameters used as variables are ready to be used in a shell script or you can also download the ready made script from Fred's mentioned site, of course. Notice, however, that they are bash scripts prepared to use bash installed at /bin/bash and bash is not installed by default on BSD systems. I got the result shown in Figure 16 with a radius of 30 and a threshold of 0% using the commands directly, not the script (it made difference as the script doesn't do exactly those commands). Watching the pictures in a larger size in my computer I consider the resulting image using ImageMagick better than the one using Neat Image, but it can vary from image to image. Other tries can be made with the approaches done by Fred in his scripts called noisecleaner, denoise, statsfilt or others. 
  
-  *  Enfuse((Enfuse: exposure fusion tool - //<nowiki>http://enblend.sourceforge.net/</nowiki>//))+  *  Enfuse((Enfuse: exposure fusion tool - //http://enblend.sourceforge.net/''//))
  This tool is able to make exposure fusion. Imagine a scene where the contrast is too high. In Figures 17 and 18, for example, I took a picture inside a living room with daylight outside. It is really difficult to make one only picture showing at the same time the details of the dark and the light parts of the scene. To solve this problem we can take pictures with different expositions and combine them with Enfuse. At the end we will have a picture showing good details in all areas, like I did in Figure 19. In full sphere panoramas the chances to have areas with different lights are obviously higher.  This tool is able to make exposure fusion. Imagine a scene where the contrast is too high. In Figures 17 and 18, for example, I took a picture inside a living room with daylight outside. It is really difficult to make one only picture showing at the same time the details of the dark and the light parts of the scene. To solve this problem we can take pictures with different expositions and combine them with Enfuse. At the end we will have a picture showing good details in all areas, like I did in Figure 19. In full sphere panoramas the chances to have areas with different lights are obviously higher.
  
Linha 184: Linha 176:
  
  
-After all image treatment is over it is finally time to join the pictures and make the panorama. The tool for this is Hugin((Hugin stitching software - //<nowiki>http://hugin.sf.net/</nowiki>//)). It will do all the distortion, rotation and position job to make a perfect stitch with our images.+After all image treatment is over it is finally time to join the pictures and make the panorama. The tool for this is Hugin((Hugin stitching software - //http://hugin.sf.net/''//)). It will do all the distortion, rotation and position job to make a perfect stitch with our images.
  
 The stitching is probably the hardest part of making a full sphere panorama. It can be made in many different ways, even considering only the use of one tool, and there are many tools for it. Any way you choose to do it can lead you into some problems and to solve many of the possible problems you will need to understand some concepts understand better the tool used. The stitching is probably the hardest part of making a full sphere panorama. It can be made in many different ways, even considering only the use of one tool, and there are many tools for it. Any way you choose to do it can lead you into some problems and to solve many of the possible problems you will need to understand some concepts understand better the tool used.
Linha 225: Linha 217:
 Going to the manual mode, the first step is to find common points between images. Those are called Control Points or just CPs. To find them it is mandatory that we had overlapped a little each image pair. If you did this, now it is time to show Hugin that, for example, that little rock in one image is the same as the rock in the other image. Using these CPs Hugin will be able to distort, roll and position the images to stitch the panorama. Some manual steps have been shown in the tutorial mentioned in section **"Mounting a simple panorama"**. That tutorial lacks some other important concepts, so here follows some hints to add manual control points: Going to the manual mode, the first step is to find common points between images. Those are called Control Points or just CPs. To find them it is mandatory that we had overlapped a little each image pair. If you did this, now it is time to show Hugin that, for example, that little rock in one image is the same as the rock in the other image. Using these CPs Hugin will be able to distort, roll and position the images to stitch the panorama. Some manual steps have been shown in the tutorial mentioned in section **"Mounting a simple panorama"**. That tutorial lacks some other important concepts, so here follows some hints to add manual control points:
  
-  *  there are normal CPs, vertical line CPs, horizontal line CPs and lines((Hugin tutorial on creating architectural projection - a good reference for creating vertical lines - //<nowiki>http://hugin.sourceforge.net/tutorials/architectural/</nowiki>//)),+  *  there are normal CPs, vertical line CPs, horizontal line CPs and lines((Hugin tutorial on creating architectural projection - a good reference for creating vertical lines - //http://hugin.sourceforge.net/tutorials/architectural/''//)),
   *  the most important are the normal ones, the ones you set between two images that overlap,   *  the most important are the normal ones, the ones you set between two images that overlap,
   *  the lines are set in only one image, putting it in both sides of the panel, like in Figure 23,   *  the lines are set in only one image, putting it in both sides of the panel, like in Figure 23,
Linha 279: Linha 271:
 {{ arquivo:hugin_fast_preview_button.jpg }} {{ arquivo:hugin_fast_preview_button.jpg }}
  
-{{ arquivo:hugin_fast_preview_window.jpg }}+{{ arquivo:hugin_fast_preview_window.jpg?800x0 }}
  
 Notice the tabs, each one with a specific purpose. Specifically the "Move/Drag" tab, shown in Figure 28, is important to manually level the panorama as I have mentioned. Using it you just click and drag over one picture and the others, that are connected to it by the CPs, move according to your needs. Other buttons can be very useful for partial panoramas, like the "Center" and "Fit". The "Straighten" button will make a try to level the panorama. You can also test it and use Ctrl+Z if it fails. Notice the tabs, each one with a specific purpose. Specifically the "Move/Drag" tab, shown in Figure 28, is important to manually level the panorama as I have mentioned. Using it you just click and drag over one picture and the others, that are connected to it by the CPs, move according to your needs. Other buttons can be very useful for partial panoramas, like the "Center" and "Fit". The "Straighten" button will make a try to level the panorama. You can also test it and use Ctrl+Z if it fails.
  
-{{ arquivo:hugin_fast_preview_drag_move_tab.jpg }}+{{ arquivo:hugin_fast_preview_drag_move_tab.jpg?800x0 }}
  
 After optimizing it is time to generate the final image. Sometimes it is still interesting to make some adjusts using masks, reviewing bad CPs, setting up lines and re-optimize. When the result is good enough we go to the Stitcher, shown in Figure 29. The hints for this tab are: After optimizing it is time to generate the final image. Sometimes it is still interesting to make some adjusts using masks, reviewing bad CPs, setting up lines and re-optimize. When the result is good enough we go to the Stitcher, shown in Figure 29. The hints for this tab are:
Linha 296: Linha 288:
 Choosed your options, just click in the "Stitch!" button and voila! ... well, it is probably going to take some time to Hugin to finish your image, just be a little patient and watch the progress. In fact it is also a good idea to save the file before stitching. Choosed your options, just click in the "Stitch!" button and voila! ... well, it is probably going to take some time to Hugin to finish your image, just be a little patient and watch the progress. In fact it is also a good idea to save the file before stitching.
  
-That ready made image can be viewed interactively with viewers like Panini((Panini panorama viewer - //<nowiki>https://sourceforge.net/projects/pvqt/</nowiki>//)) before being published. It is necessary to compile it under BSDs, but it is not difficult. You just need to install some qt4 dependencies and follow the instructions in the panini-build.txt file.+That ready made image can be viewed interactively with viewers like Panini((Panini panorama viewer - //https://sourceforge.net/projects/pvqt/''//)) before being published. It is necessary to compile it under BSDs, but it is not difficult. You just need to install some qt4 dependencies and follow the instructions in the panini-build.txt file.
  
-You can try to find other options here: //<nowiki>http://wiki.panotools.org/Panorama_Viewers#Stand_alone_Viewers</nowiki>// or you can jump to the publishing section.+You can try to find other options here: //http://wiki.panotools.org/Panorama_Viewers#Stand_alone_Viewers'' or you can jump to the publishing section.//
  
  
Linha 314: Linha 306:
   *  put 90 as the "Pitch" value, as shown in Figure 30, then click the "Apply" button,   *  put 90 as the "Pitch" value, as shown in Figure 30, then click the "Apply" button,
  
-{{ arquivo:hugin_little_planet_pitch.jpg }}+{{ arquivo:hugin_little_planet_pitch.jpg?800x0 }}
  
   *  adjust the zoom with the horizontal scroll shown in Figure 31, arrow number 1,   *  adjust the zoom with the horizontal scroll shown in Figure 31, arrow number 1,
   *  don't ming with lines like the one shown in Figure 31 arrow 2, cause they are only present in the fast preview, the rendered image won't have it,   *  don't ming with lines like the one shown in Figure 31 arrow 2, cause they are only present in the fast preview, the rendered image won't have it,
  
-{{ arquivo:hugin_little_planet_adjust.jpg }}+{{ arquivo:hugin_little_planet_adjust.jpg?800x0 }}
  
   *  finish the final positioning by dragging and moving the picture, then you can stitch as you have stitched before: choose your image size and stitch it!   *  finish the final positioning by dragging and moving the picture, then you can stitch as you have stitched before: choose your image size and stitch it!
Linha 353: Linha 345:
   *  generate a new image to edit into GIMP and then do the steps back.   *  generate a new image to edit into GIMP and then do the steps back.
  
-I sometimes prefer to use another tool, in fact it is a tool kit called Panotools::Script((Bruno Postle's Panotools::Script toolkit - //<nowiki>http://search.cpan.org/dist/Panotools-Script/</nowiki>//)) made by Bruno Postle. It is a perl package available at CPAN: //<nowiki>http://search.cpan.org/dist/Panotools-Script/</nowiki>//. When installed it gives us two tools, among others: erect2cubic cubic2erect. These two guys, as their names suggest, make the conversion from equirectangular and cubic format in both ways. The installation can make you a little tired, as it will need many other CPAN perl packages dependencies installation.+I sometimes prefer to use another tool, in fact it is a tool kit called Panotools::Script((Bruno Postle's Panotools::Script toolkit - //http://search.cpan.org/dist/Panotools-Script/''//)) made by Bruno Postle. It is a perl package available at CPAN: //http://search.cpan.org/dist/Panotools-Script/''. When installed it gives us two tools, among others: erect2cubic and cubic2erect. These two guys, as their names suggest, make the conversion from equirectangular and cubic format in both ways. The installation can make you a little tired, as it will need many other CPAN perl packages dependencies installation.//
  
 In the cubic format we have 6 separated images, as shown in Figure 35. You can think of them as if they were the 6 faces from a cube with you inside. Each image is in a rectilinear format, with no distortion. Straight lines are straight on them. This format finally allows we to edit the zenith and nadir views easily and you can take the opportunity to put some logo or message at the nadir. After finished you can convert it back to equirectangular with the cubic2erect tool. In the cubic format we have 6 separated images, as shown in Figure 35. You can think of them as if they were the 6 faces from a cube with you inside. Each image is in a rectilinear format, with no distortion. Straight lines are straight on them. This format finally allows we to edit the zenith and nadir views easily and you can take the opportunity to put some logo or message at the nadir. After finished you can convert it back to equirectangular with the cubic2erect tool.
Linha 363: Linha 355:
 erect2cubic --ptofile=cubic.pto --erect=yourEquirectangular.jpg erect2cubic --ptofile=cubic.pto --erect=yourEquirectangular.jpg
  
-You just replace the name your_equirectangular.jpg with the name of your equirectangular file and give the PTO file the name you want. I suggested cubic.pto. After that you can run:+You just replace the name yourEquirectangular.jpg with the name of your equirectangular file and give the PTO file the name you want. I suggested cubic.pto. After that you can run:
  
 nona -o cubic cubic.pto nona -o cubic cubic.pto
Linha 383: Linha 375:
  
  
-The easiest way to publish is using the site 360 Cities((360 Cities: immersive panorama gallery to watch and publish - //<nowiki>http://www.360cities.net</nowiki>//)), shown in figure 36. You just need to do a free registration and upload the equirectangular image. It will take a short time for it to be approved, probably one day or so. To increase the chances of approval you should make an image with at least 6,000 x 3,000 pixels and fill the fields that describe the picture, including its local in google maps. If you are lucky your picture can be selected to Google Earth's 360 cities gallery.+The easiest way to publish is using the site 360 Cities((360 Cities: immersive panorama gallery to watch and publish - //http://www.360cities.net''//)), shown in figure 36. You just need to do a free registration and upload the equirectangular image. It will take a short time for it to be approved, probably one day or so. To increase the chances of approval you should make an image with at least 6,000 x 3,000 pixels and fill the fields that describe the picture, including its local in google maps. If you are lucky your picture can be selected to Google Earth's 360 cities gallery.
  
 {{ arquivo:360cities-01.png?800x0 }} {{ arquivo:360cities-01.png?800x0 }}
Linha 391: Linha 383:
 {{ arquivo:360cities-02.png?800x0 }} {{ arquivo:360cities-02.png?800x0 }}
  
-I know that the TourWrist((TourWrist - yet another site to publish your panoramas - //<nowiki>http://www.tourwrist.com/</nowiki>//)) site is another alternative, where maybe you will be able to publish less quality panoramas. I know they allow you to publish partial panoramas and they have an application for Apple devices.+I know that the TourWrist((TourWrist - yet another site to publish your panoramas - //http://www.tourwrist.com/''//)) site is another alternative, where maybe you will be able to publish less quality panoramas. I know they allow you to publish partial panoramas and they have an application for Apple devices.
  
  
Linha 397: Linha 389:
  
  
-To publish by yourself you can use, for example, flash, java and html5 formats and put the panorama in your own site. Among the free options, I prefer the Salado Player((Salado Player: a free flash plugin to play a 360x180° image - //<nowiki>http://panozona.com/wiki/SaladoPlayer:Quick_start</nowiki>//)) for flash enabled devices and VR5 pano viewer((VR5 pano viewer: a free HTML5 code to publish a 360x180° image - //<nowiki>http://www.vrhabitat.com/#vr5</nowiki>//)) for the iThings and other HTML5 browsers. Pannellum((Pannellum: a free HTML5 code to publish a 360x180° image - //<nowiki>https://bitbucket.org/mpetroff/pannellum/</nowiki>//)) is also a new option for HTML5. The java plugin, PTViewer((PTViewer: a free java plugin to publish a 360x180° image - //<nowiki>http://webuser.hs-furtwangen.de/~dersch/</nowiki>//)), made by the notorious Helmut Dersch((Helmut Dersch - pioneer Panoramatools developer - //<nowiki>http://webuser.hs-furtwangen.de/~dersch/</nowiki>//)), is heavier, has fewer features and won't be able to deal with very large images. It will accept the equirectangular format directly, and in fact only it. That makes publishing much easier, but is one of the reasons of the image size limit. At his site there are other newer alternatives, which you can take a look, but I haven't tested them yet.+To publish by yourself you can use, for example, flash, java and html5 formats and put the panorama in your own site. Among the free options, I prefer the Salado Player((Salado Player: a free flash plugin to play a 360x180° image - //http://panozona.com/wiki/SaladoPlayer:Quick_start''//)) for flash enabled devices and VR5 pano viewer((VR5 pano viewer: a free HTML5 code to publish a 360x180° image - //http://www.vrhabitat.com/#vr5''//)) for the iThings and other HTML5 browsers. Pannellum((Pannellum: a free HTML5 code to publish a 360x180° image - //https://bitbucket.org/mpetroff/pannellum/''//)) is also a new option for HTML5. The java plugin, PTViewer((PTViewer: a free java plugin to publish a 360x180° image - //http://webuser.hs-furtwangen.de/~dersch/''//)), made by the notorious Helmut Dersch((Helmut Dersch - pioneer Panoramatools developer - //http://webuser.hs-furtwangen.de/~dersch/''//)), is heavier, has fewer features and won't be able to deal with very large images. It will accept the equirectangular format directly, and in fact only it. That makes publishing much easier, but is one of the reasons of the image size limit. At his site there are other newer alternatives, which you can take a look, but I haven't tested them yet.
  
-Talking about the ones I prefer, to use the Salado Player we need to convert the image as a first step. This is done using Salado Converter((Salado Converter: converts images to use with Salado Player - //<nowiki>http://panozona.com/wiki/SaladoConverter</nowiki>//)), a small Java software that does the job. It transforms the equirectangular into a "DeepZoomCubic" format, which a recommend.+Talking about the ones I prefer, to use the Salado Player we need to convert the image as a first step. This is done using Salado Converter((Salado Converter: converts images to use with Salado Player - //http://panozona.com/wiki/SaladoConverter''//)), a small Java software that does the job. It transforms the equirectangular into a "DeepZoomCubic" format, which a recommend.
  
 So, the first step is to download Salado Converter and uncompress it in some directory in your machine. After that you will have a file called //SaladoConverter.jar//. You might have to increase the java heap size to work with larger images, so I recommend using this command line to call it: So, the first step is to download Salado Converter and uncompress it in some directory in your machine. After that you will have a file called //SaladoConverter.jar//. You might have to increase the java heap size to work with larger images, so I recommend using this command line to call it:
Linha 421: Linha 413:
 Let me try to show it in practice. Download a recent example can be found in this link: Let me try to show it in practice. Download a recent example can be found in this link:
  
-//<nowiki>http://cartola.org/panoramas/20120818-Gnugraf-Palestra/index.html</nowiki>//+//http://cartola.org/panoramas/20120818-Gnugraf-Palestra/index.html''//
  
 You will need this first HTML to point to the XML and other files. After downloading it you must edit it in your favorite text editor (what about vi?) changing: You will need this first HTML to point to the XML and other files. After downloading it you must edit it in your favorite text editor (what about vi?) changing:
  
-  *  the title text between <__yamdwe_nowiki>43</__yamdwe_nowiki> tags,+  *  the title text between <titleand </title> tags,
   *  put the name of your XML file in place of bn.xml (or use it as your file name).   *  put the name of your XML file in place of bn.xml (or use it as your file name).
  
 Then you will need the XML file. Download it from: Then you will need the XML file. Download it from:
  
-//<nowiki>http://cartola.org/panoramas/20120818-Gnugraf-Palestra/bn.xml</nowiki>//+//http://cartola.org/panoramas/20120818-Gnugraf-Palestra/bn.xml''//
  
 and then: and then:
Linha 476: Linha 468:
   *  you will publish it (or not).   *  you will publish it (or not).
  
-Each step has its secrets to success. The one I consider the most critical is the stitching step. It is where, in my opinion, you can get in more different troubles and don't know how to solve it. The Hugin mailing list((Hugin mailing list - a good place to ask for help - //<nowiki>http://groups.google.com/group/hugin-ptx</nowiki>//)) is a very good place to ask for help and I am there also. For the beginner the stitching of bad images can be hard, so the stitching step depends of well done pictures. I am not talking about beautiful pictures, I am talking about using the No Parallax Point to make them, which, remember, makes a huge difference in the easiness of stitching a full sphere panorama. Also remember the recommendations of a good scene selection. +Each step has its secrets to success. The one I consider the most critical is the stitching step. It is where, in my opinion, you can get in more different troubles and don't know how to solve it. The Hugin mailing list((Hugin mailing list - a good place to ask for help - //http://groups.google.com/group/hugin-ptx''//)) is a very good place to ask for help and I am there also. For the beginner the stitching of bad images can be hard, so the stitching step depends of well done pictures. I am not talking about beautiful pictures, I am talking about using the No Parallax Point to make them, which, remember, makes a huge difference in the easiness of stitching a full sphere panorama. Also remember the recommendations of a good scene selection. 
  
 Many more information and many other concepts can be studied and I hope this article can catch your interest to the subject, making you search for more and become one more panoramist photographer in the world! Particularly in the BSD world and also in all the free software community I hope we can maybe find more people to help the free softwares to evolute and become each time better. Many more information and many other concepts can be studied and I hope this article can catch your interest to the subject, making you search for more and become one more panoramist photographer in the world! Particularly in the BSD world and also in all the free software community I hope we can maybe find more people to help the free softwares to evolute and become each time better.
Linha 484: Linha 476:
  
  
-**Exif**\\ Exchangeable image file format is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras and other devices. Take a look at the Wikipedia for more detailed information: //<nowiki>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exif</nowiki>//. +**Exif**\\ Exchangeable image file format is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras and other devices. Take a look at the Wikipedia for more detailed information: //http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exif''.// 
-**Exposure**\\ It can be understood by the total density of light allowed to fall on the sensor during the taking of a photograph. More informatin here: //<nowiki>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposure_%28photography%29</nowiki>//.+**Exposure**\\ It can be understood by the total density of light allowed to fall on the sensor during the taking of a photograph. More informatin here: //http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposure_%28photography%29''.//
 **No Parallax Point**\\ is the point where an imaginary rotation axis passes and one should rotate the camera+lens through this axis in order to obtain no parallax errors between different shoots. **No Parallax Point**\\ is the point where an imaginary rotation axis passes and one should rotate the camera+lens through this axis in order to obtain no parallax errors between different shoots.
 **Nadir**\\ is the direction pointing directly below a particular location. In the case of a full sphere panorama, is the point you see when you look down. In general there are tips and tricks concerning shooting the nadir point to make an full sphere panorama. **Nadir**\\ is the direction pointing directly below a particular location. In the case of a full sphere panorama, is the point you see when you look down. In general there are tips and tricks concerning shooting the nadir point to make an full sphere panorama.
immersive_360x180_panoramic_photography_in_bsd.1357043792.txt.gz · Última modificação: 2013/01/01 10:36 por cartola